The Apocrypha

by Edgar J. Goodspeed

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The Apocrypha consists of the books that are found in the Greek version of the Jewish Bible--the Septuagint, the earliest complete version of the Bible we possess--but that were not included in the final, canonical version of the Hebrew Bible. For this reason, they were called “Apocrypha,” the hidden or secret books, and while they formed part of the original King James version of 1611, they are no longer included in modern Bibles. Yet they include such important works as The First Book of Maccabees, the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, and the stories of Susanna, Tobit, and Judith, and other works of great importance for the history of the Jews in the period between the rebuilding of the Temple and the time of Jesus, and thus for the background of the New Testament. These works have also had a remarkable impact on writers and artists. Beyond this, they are often as powerful as anything in the canonical Bible.The translation into contemporary English is by Edgar J. Goodspeed.

The Apocrypha Edgar J. Goodspeed
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The ApocryphaLuther also expressed some doubts about the canonicity of four New Testament books, although he never called them apocrypha: the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistles of James and Jude, and the Revelation to John^ Jedin, Hubert (1947)^ Metzger, Bruce (1957)London: Burns & OatesThis is only true with certain reservations, as the Latin Vulgate was revised by Jerome according to the Hebrew, and, where Hebrew originals were not found, according to the SeptuagintMain articles: Luther Bible, Intertestamental period, and Luther's canonScholars are still divided as to the original language, date, and place of composition of some of the books that come under this provisional attempt at orderThe Sadduceesunlike the Pharisees but like the Samaritansseem to have maintained an earlier and smaller number of texts as canonical, preferring to hold to only what was written in the Law of Moses[17] (making most of the presently accepted canon, both Jewish and Christian, apocryphal in their eyes)See Development of the Old Testament canonMetzger, Bruce M

The wider Christian canon accepted by Augustine became the more established canon in the western Church[32] after being promulgated for use in the Easter Letter of Athanasius (circa 372 A.D., though in the same letter he denied all apocryphal books as being Scripture, except for Baruch, while excluding Esther).[33] the Synod of Rome (382 A.D., but its Decretum Gelasianum is generally considered to be a much later addition[34] ) and the local councils of Carthage and Hippo in north Africa (391 and 393 A.D)Modern non-Catholic reprintings of the Clementine Vulgate commonly omit the Apocrypha sectionISBN9780310872436(1 Maccabees 4:46)^ Archer, Jr, Gleason (2007)Catholic arguments:pp.20, 26^ Wicks, Jared (1978)

Nancy Harmon Jenkins, New York Times, 21 AugThe Catholic view, expressed as a doctrine of faith at the Council of Trent, is that 12 of these 15 works (in a different enumeration, however) are canonical Scripture; they are called the Deuterocanonical BooksCoverdale (1535) called them "Apocrypha"The Canon of the Old Testament (PDF)Emerging from the instability of the Warring States period (476221 BCE), ancient Chinese scholars saw the centralized rule of the Zhou as an ideal model for the new Han empire to emulateSo now you have the Bible, the Apocrypha and Catholic Tradition as co-equal sources of truth for the Catholic622-653 Porter, Frank CSo the Catholic argument that "the apocryphal books cannot be rejected as uninspired on the basis that they are never quoted from in the New Testament because Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon are also never quoted in the New Testament, and we all accept them as inspired." The rebuttal to this Catholic argument is that "Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther" were always included in the "history collection" of Jewish books and "Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon" were always included in the "poetry collection"

The East did already differ from the West in not considering every question of canon yet settled, and it subsequently adopted a few more books into its Old TestamentSinologist Anna Seidel refers to texts and even items produced by ancient Chinese sages as apocryphal and studied their uses during Six Dynasties China (A.DThe Bible and the Puritan revolution[edit]Many reprintings of older versions of the Bible now omit the apocrypha and many newer translations and revisions have never included them at allAmerica's top bankers have an even longer history of not giving a hoot what the public thinks18, XIII"The books which they decided to acknowledge as canonical were already generally accepted, although questions had been raised about them^ "StCultural impact[edit]

Graecum cum varThey contain fabulous statements, and statements which contradict not only the canonical Scriptures, but themselves; as when, in the two Books of Maccabees, Antiochus Epiphanes is made to die three different deaths in as many different placesSome editions add additional books, such as Psalm 151 or the Odes (including the Prayer of Manasses)The apocryphal books were not permitted among the sacred books during the first four centuries of the real Christian church (I'm certainly not talking about the Catholic religion"THE COUNCIL OF JAMNIA AND THE OLD TESTAMENT CANON" (PDF)The 1538 Myles Coverdale Bible contained an Apocrypha that excluded Baruch and the Prayer of ManassehNeedless to say, Jerome's Latin Vulgate did not include the ApocryphaThose which they refused to admit had never been includedThe first book of Maccabees I have found to be Hebrew, the second is Greek, as can be proved from the very style11:16]? And, as a boy, Daniel judges old men and in the flower of youth condemns the incontinence of age [Daniel 13:5559 aka Story of Susannah 5559]" ^ Jerome, To Oceanus, Epistle 77:4 (A.D 5d8a9798ff

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